World Oyster Day MSc Graduate in Focus: Celine Gamble

Today, for World Oyster Day, we meet Celine Gamble, MSc Biodiversity and Conservation (2017) and BSc Zoology (2015) graduate, now working as a Project Manager at the Zoological Society of London (ZSL).

Celine on a visit to an oyster farm on Angle Bay, Wales /ZSL

Hi Celine! Why don’t you tell us a bit about what you are up to now?

I am a Project Manager in the Conservation and Policy department at ZSL and Visiting Researcher at the University of Portsmouth’s Institute of Marine Sciences. I work within the ZSL Estuaries and Wetlands team, which has a varied programme of marine conservation projects, including marine habitat restoration and monitoring of marine species, such as sharks and seals, in the River Thames and outer Thames Estuaries.

During my current role I manage a new project, Wild Oysters, and a Network of restoration practitioners around the UK & Ireland. I work closely with a range of stakeholders including NGO’s, academics, oystermen, government agencies and community groups. My role is very varied, including a mix of physical restoration, science communication, networking, and scientific research.

Find out more about the ZSL Marine and Freshwater Conservation projects here.

A Native Oyster Reef in France /Stephane Pouvreau

In celebration of World Oyster Day, it would be great to understand more about native oysters and why we need to restore them?

The European native oyster (Ostrea edulis) is the only true oyster species that is native to our UK coastlines. Native oysters once formed vast reefs along the coastlines of Europe, forming a dominant ecological feature of our coastal marine habitat.

Despite being relatively small in size (5-11cm), oysters are capable of making some big changes in our marine environment! For that reason, I like to think of them as little superheroes of the sea. A single oyster can filter ~200 litres of seawater per day, which can improve both water quality and clarity. The unique three-dimensional habitats created by oysters support a higher biodiversity of species than the surrounding seabed. Oyster reefs can also increase fish production, by providing a protective nursery ground for juveniles.

Native oyster reefs are now among the most threatened marine habitats in Europe. In the UK and Ireland populations have declined by 95%, as a result of historic overfishing, pollution, and disease. You can still see some remnant populations in the south east of England, west coast of Scotland and the south coast of Ireland. Due to the vast decline of the species, native oysters need active restoration method in order to prevent the species from becoming functionally extinct.

Please could you tell us a little more about what ZSL doing towards Oyster restoration?

Today on World Oyster Day we are very excited to be launching an exciting new marine habitat restoration project in the UK. ZSL along with partners, Blue Marine Foundation and British Marine, we have been awarded £1.18m to deliver the Wild Oysters project.

Wild Oysters is aiming to recover native oyster populations in the UK, and in turn bring back the ecosystem services they provide. Bringing conservation and industry together we will make a space for nature within marina sites. By installing oyster nurseries suspended underneath marina pontoons, we will release the next generation of oyster larvae to the seabed. The oyster larvae will then settle across three new oyster reefs created in British estuaries. In addition, the oyster nurseries will provide us with a “unique window into the ocean” acting as an engagement and education tool.

ZSL are co-founders of the Native Oyster Network, along with the University of Portsmouth, aiming to facilitate the ecologically coherent and collaborative approach to native oyster restoration in the UK & Ireland. ZSL also chair the Essex Native Oyster Restoration Initiative (ENORI), a collaboration between oystermen, government, conservationists and academia. Working towards the Essex estuaries having self-sustaining populations of native oysters, increased biodiversity and sustainable fisheries whilst recognising their cultural importance.

Osytermen in Essex who are part of the ENORI project /ZSL
Oyster reef deployment in Essex as part of ENORI project /ZSL

How did your studies at the University of Exeter shape where you work today?

I have developed a focused interest in the restoration of unique marine habitats around the UK. Many of these habitats such as seagrass beds, kelp forests, saltmarshes, and oyster reefs, are often overlooked. I developed a passion for both science communication and marine conservation whilst working and studying at the University of Exeter. My interests and skillset have been developed throughout my degrees, from carrying out UK based marine fieldwork, learning to dive in Cornwall and the extracurricular opportunities available at the university.

During my master’s I had an introduction to many different marine NGO’s and researchers via the Marine Biodiversity and Conservation module. I met Dr Heather Koldewey, who at the time was the Head of ZSL Marine and Freshwater, through this module. I later approached her to be my MSc thesis supervisor, which meant that I learnt a lot more about her research and the wider work of her team.

Any advice for anyone looking to pursue a career in marine conservation?

Reaching out to contacts that you have built throughout your degree, including fellow classmates and recent alumni, is a great place to start. Having a casual chat with someone who is working at an organisation you are keen to work for in the future, provides you with that initial step in the door. I also find that social media and online networking tools work very well for building your knowledge of the types of marine conservation organisations out there. I followed the ZSL Marine and Freshwater social media pages throughout my university degrees, which helped my understanding of the scope of work delivered by the team. This information later became very useful when applying for jobs that came up within the organisation.

Finally, I would say do not let an unsuccessful interview (or a few) put you off applying to the same organisation again if another job comes up. I was offered my first position at ZSL after applying to a few different roles and my third interview attempt.

Graduating on Gyllyngvase Beach, Cornwall /Celine Gamble

Thanks Celine!

You can keep up to date with Celine on Twitter (@CelineGamble) and Instagram (@celineg_marine)

Investigating Coral Reef Acoustics to Aid Reef Restoration

Words by Ben Williams, 2019 BioScience Graduate

Most people are aware coral reefs throughout the world are struggling one way or another. A range
of issues are responsible including overfishing, pollution and climate change induced bleaching to
name a few. However, coral reef communities provide valuable ecosystem services to a vast number
of individuals, it’s estimated One Billion people have some degree of dependence on these
ecosystems. With much of the world’s reefs degraded or lost it makes conserving those that remain
vital, and restoration of former reefs an important endeavour to many individuals.

The Marine Bioacoustics group in Exeter focuses much of their efforts on understanding the
soundscapes of coral reefs. These soundscapes encompass the entirety of the sound that can be
heard on particular spots of the reef and can be collected using underwater microphones we call
hydrophones. Emerging research suggests a lot can be determined about a reef from a few key
parameters within its soundscape which could be used to indicate the health of the surrounding
reef. A great example is shown in the spectrograms below, where you can hear an audible difference
between the soundscape of a healthy reef and that of a degraded reef:

This short acoustic clip first plays us the buzz of a healthy reef, followed by the quieter setting heard on a degraded reef

A group of us from Exeter’s Marine Bioacoustics group are currently out in Indonesia exploring reef
acoustics further. We’re collaborating with a project set up by Mars™, who have been working on an
intuitive way to restore the reefs in South Sulawesi. They use two key methods in doing so, the first
is coral propagation, where small samples of coral are clipped off live colonies and transported
somewhere new where they grow back at a faster rate than if left on their original colony. The next
step is to attach these to a skeleton system they call ‘Spiders’, which provide a substrate for new
corals to colonise and elevate them slightly above the reef bottom to provide the water flow needed
to bring nutrients to the growing coral. The Mars™ project has implemented large areas of these
spiders around two islands off Makassar with an impressive degree of success in their ability to
restore the reef.

This photo shows some of the several month old spiders placed by the Mars™  team which are showing an impressive rate of growth.

Our team from Exeter is particularly interested in the difference between the soundscapes of healthy and degraded reefs. We’re visiting the Mars™ restoration efforts to help explore the differences in soundscapes between their restored sites, degraded sites and baseline healthy sites. The hope is that in the future we will be able to show restored sites match the soundscape of healthy sites, and a quantifiable difference between the restored sites and degraded sites will be observable. We’re trialing this out using hydrophones which we’ve been placing daily on different sites within the reefs to determine whether this is a feasible methodology in comparing the reef soundscape.

Ellie May deploying a GoPro to film our quadrat used for the underwater playback test.

We’re also exploring the possibility of using ‘soundscape enhancement’ to help fine tune the ecology of the reef at a local scale to bring about restorative impacts. This is a highly innovative approach in which submersible loudspeakers are placed on patches of degraded reefs where they play recordings that may help recovery of the reef. A proof of concept of this was only recently provided in a 2018 study authored by Tim Gordon, who is now leading the expedition out here in Indonesia, and other members of the
Marine Bioacoustics group. The study found that larval and juvenile recruitment was greater at sites where healthy reef noise was played compared to sites where degraded reef noise was played. The use of soundscape enhancement is therefore of a great interest to restoration programmes like Mars™ in Indonesia, and we’re also out here to help them investigate whether this could be a potentially useful tool for their restoration. This time we’re trialing playback methods that could be used to affect the ecology of adult fish within the reef, primarily regarding their grazing behaviour which is a key process in controlling algae overgrowth at degraded sites.

 

#ExeterMarine is an interdisciplinary group of marine related researchers with capabilities across the scientific, biological,  medical, engineering, humanities and social science fields.

Find us on: Facebook : Twitter : Instagram : LinkedIn  

If you are interested in working with our researchers or students, contact Michael Hanley or visit our website!