Systematic Review


Alongside the online survey, we also conducted a systematic review. This found 64 moderate to poor quality evaluations:

  • 17 studies about non-spinal cord pathology, mainly behavioural ‘toilet training’ for urinary continence.
  • 47 studies about children with spinal cord pathology, mainly medically-assisted or surgical approaches.

And 3 robust qualitative studies

  • all with children with spinal cord pathology- elucidating challenges, concerns and journey.

The variety of outcomes measured in various ways made it difficult to synthesise findings.

Read more in the report

You can download a plain language summary of the systematic review protocol below.

Systematic Review – plain language protocol summary