Alongside the online survey, we also conducted a systematic review. This found 64 moderate to poor quality evaluations:
- 17 studies about non-spinal cord pathology, mainly behavioural ‘toilet training’ for urinary continence.
- 47 studies about children with spinal cord pathology, mainly medically-assisted or surgical approaches.
And 3 robust qualitative studies
- all with children with spinal cord pathology- elucidating challenges, concerns and journey.
The variety of outcomes measured in various ways made it difficult to synthesise findings.
You can download a plain language summary of the systematic review protocol below.